FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT 
FEEDING.fish food 
As a fish farmer, especially for someone who is just going into the business, you need to understand that close to 50% of your investment goes in feeding. Feeding takes a whole lot especially if you are into grow out production. Just imagine feeding 1000-pieces offish for 5 month and one bag of imported pellet feed now is about N4,200. All of this is not to scare you but to prepare your mind for the task ahead of you.
You can reduce your cost of feeding by giving them a locally formulated feed. There are several places where you can buy the feed ingredients and then grind and pellet for your fish. In feeding your fish with the local feed, be careful not to waste you feed. Watch your fish as they feed and then stop feeding immediate the fish has stopped rushing for the food. The reason why you should stop feeding is because the local feed will eventually sink later n it will pollute the water which will cause trouble for your fish. But with the imported floating feeds, you will still see the remains of the feed on the water floating.
MANAGEMENT
Management covers all the operations which are required to keep the pond operating at maximum efficiency. For earthen ponds:
 Check your pond often for leaks.
 Remove undesirable aquatic weeds.
 Always watch fish behavior while feeding.
 Fertilize your pond when necessary.
 Watch for predators.
 Cut grasses on pond walls.
 Periodically, clean the bottom of your pond as this will control the PH of your water.
General Management.
 Change your water periodically.
 Feed well.
 Observe fish for signs of disease.
How do I know the number of fish to stock in my pond or a tank?
The size of your pond or concrete tank will determine the number of fish to stock. Some usually stock between 2 to 10 juvenile per meter square, and some other will stock between 5 to 7 juvenile per meter square. The most important thing is do not over stock and do not under stock. In-fact, it is better to under-stock than to over-stock because the fewer your fish, the faster their growth.
What happens when I overstock?
Also, there will be reduction of oxygen in the culture system and when the fish have less oxygen available for them, they will be stressed and stress in fish will lead to disease outbreak.
What should be the size of my pond?
The size of your pond will depend on the purpose for which it is to serve. But it is better to have a pond that can be easily managed. For instance, you can have 2 – 3 ponds on 1 plot of land. It all depends on your capabilities.
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